Pemphigus is the common autoimmune disease caused in dogs. It causes skin crusting, ulceration, creation of fluid-filled cysts and pustules. Some form of Pemphigus can also damage the skin tissue of the gums in dogs. The autoimmune disease is caused in dogs because of the autoantibodies that are formed in the body that acts against its own healthy cells and tissues similar to white blood cells work against infection.
Autoimmune skin disorders are a life-threatening disease that affects the different systems of the body. The seriousness of this disease is based on how extremely the autoantibodies settled down in the skin layers. Acantholysis is the hallmark sign of Pemphigus where the cells of the skin separate and destroy because of antibody settled in between cells space.
There are four different types of Pemphigus diseases caused in dogs. They are pemphigus vegetans, pemphigus erythematosus, pemphigus foliaceus, and pemphigus Vulgaris.
Pemphigus Vulgaris is very severe and forms deeper ulcers since the autoantibodies settled down deep in the skin of dogs. Pemphigus vegetans diseases occur only in dogs. It is the rarest Pemphigus disease and it is a small version of Pemphigus Vulgaris with only little ulcers. The autoantibodies are settled down on the outer layer of the epidermis and therefore blisters develop on the healthy skin portion in pemphigus foliaceus disease. In dogs, Pemphigus erythematosus is a common disease. It is similar to pemphigus foliaceus but it less effective than that.
The body develops antibodies that respond to healthy cells and tissue which are called autoantibodies disease. Autoantibodies are also caused by the exposure of the sun. In certain dog breeds, this disease arises as the hereditary disease.
The diagnosis of this disease is performed by the veterinarian. The diagnosis process starts with the physical examination of your dog such as electrolyte panel, blood chemical profile, total blood count, urinalysis, and few others.
Here are the symptoms of the diseases explained below. Dogs affected by Pemphigus diseases mostly have normal bloodwork results. You must explain the veterinarian complete history of your dog’s health and the symptoms. Any particular incident that created this disease can also be described to the veterinarian. For instance, in some cases, exposing the dog too much on the sun can create this disease. Apart from the physical examination, skin examination is also crucial. During the biopsy process, skin tissue is taken. Crust aspirates and pustule must be diagnosed for Pemphigus.
When the neutrophils or white blood cells and cantholytic cells are found in the diagnosis then the results is positive and the dog is affected by Pemphigus disease. If there is any secondary infection then the bacterial skin culture is identified for treatment. Your veterinarian prescribes the antibiotics dog when there is a secondary infection. You must visit the clinic with your dog once in three weeks. At each of these visits, standard bloodwork is taken to determine the progress. Once your dog’s health is improved, your dog can visit the veterinarian once in every month. It is better to safeguard your dog from sun’s exposure.